|Year : 2015 | Volume
| Issue : 2 | Page : 71-75
Organizational role stress and job satisfaction among nurses
Rajesh Kumar1, Gurdeep Kaur2, Amar Dhillon2
1 Department of Psychiatric Nursing, SGRD College of Nursing, SGRD Medical College and Research Center, Vallah, Amritsar, Punjab, India
2 SGRD College of Nursing, Vallah, Amritsar, Punjab, India
|Date of Web Publication||20-Jan-2016|
Department of Mental Health Nursing, SGRD College of Nursing, SGRD Medical College and Research Center, Vallah, Amritsar - 143 501, Punjab
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
Introduction: Job satisfaction and organizational stress among employees are two important key components of any successful organization. It is important to maintain a balance between the level of job satisfaction and perceived stress among nurses for rendering quality care in the health sector. Materials and Methods: A correlational study design was adopted for the study. A simple random sampling technique was used to recruit 100 staff nurses working at a tertiary care hospital. Job satisfaction scale (JSS) and the organizational role stress (ORS) scale were used to collect data related to job satisfaction and ORS among nurses. Results: Study results showed that majority (92%) of staff nurses were ambivalent regarding their job satisfaction. There was a significant negative relationship between ORS and job satisfaction (r = −0.289, P < 0. 01) among staff nurses. Discussion: The study revealed that many factors influenced job satisfaction and ORS among nurses. Nurse managers and administrators must be alert to suggest the suitable interventions timely to ensure the staff nurses satisfied and get a hassle-free working atmosphere.
Keywords: Job satisfaction, organizational role stress, staff nurses
|How to cite this article:|
Kumar R, Kaur G, Dhillon A. Organizational role stress and job satisfaction among nurses. J Mental Health Hum Behav 2015;20:71-5
|How to cite this URL:|
Kumar R, Kaur G, Dhillon A. Organizational role stress and job satisfaction among nurses. J Mental Health Hum Behav [serial online] 2015 [cited 2020 Sep 29];20:71-5. Available from: http://www.jmhhb.org/text.asp?2015/20/2/71/174597
| Introduction|| |
Stress at work as a concept has been in existence since long and has been widely studied; both the antecedent and consequences of stress in modern day are very different and have strong implications in ones' professional lives. Organizational stress is considered as one of the leading problems in almost all professions around the world. Organizational stress is defined as the experience of negative emotional states such as frustration, worry, anxiety, and depression attributed to work-related factors.  World Health Organization expert committee (1985) said that it is a wide spectrum of disease of multifactorial etiology, which is partially associated with the profession or working conditions. 
Organizational role stress (ORS) is the stress experienced due to the occupation of an organizational role.  It occurs if there is a poor fit between one's work requirement and conditions, and his/her abilities.  Factors relating to the environment, the organization, and the individual can also trigger stress.  Literature identified five categories of stressors; excessive competition, hazardous working conditions, job insecurity, task demands, and long or unusual working hours.  Stress is as intrinsic to job or role, career growth, and relationship with colleagues and organizational climate and structure as five main clusters of work stressors. 
Nurses are regularly facing multiple types of conflicting situation at the workplace and are exposed to different types of clinical conditions while working day and night in a ward. Apart from the routine workload of patient care, nurses are exposed to different conditions, i.e., death, dying, creaming, gasping, bloodshed, are exposed private body parts, and helpless patient and their significant family members and many more stressful circumstances. ,
On the other side, we cannot ignore that the patient quality care and hospital efficiency are directly related to the level of stress among health professionals. It is evidenced that working in intensive care area lead to more fatigue consequently decrease pleasure, and makes a person more susceptible to get illness , i.e., withdrawal, reduced performance, deteriorating collegial relations, substance abuse, and or accidents at workplace. ,,
Job satisfaction is a subjective feeling to work with dedication, loyalty, and desire. It is a two-way process where employee thinks that their loss cannot be compensated by the organization and vice versa.  Job satisfaction depends on many things at the workplace, i.e., hospital ergonomics, transport, family welfare services, career opportunities, timely promotion, acknowledgment of good work, and last but not least a smart salary. 
Working conditions have an enormous impact on overall life satisfaction through the perception of the quality of working life. It influences life satisfaction through changing characteristics (interest, energy level, mood, personality, and health) of the person and the environment.  Ease of use of facilities at workplace will help to promote the person to become more dedicated and intention to do work with full enthusiasm to improve better patient outcome and quality care at hospital.
Nurses are major workforces and play very crucial role in determining quality patient care and efficiency of the hospital. Thus, the author decided to take the issue under consideration to find a relationship between job satisfaction and ORS among staff nurses.
| Materials and Methods|| |
The study conducted among the staff nurses working at Sri Guru Ram Das Institute of Medical Sciences and Research Center, Vallah, Amritsar (Punjab). It is charitable cancer hospital and medical college, affiliated to Baba Farid University of Health Sciences, Faridkot. The institute was established in 1997 and situated 10 km away from the main city with 24 hrs transport availability. It spreads in 65 acres land with all the basic amenities in the campus. It has a 650 bedded hospital to offers multi-specialty services in the field of medicine, surgery, pediatrics, obstetrics and gynecology, psychiatry, and dental medicine and surgery.
The institute provides training and education for medical, dental, paramedical and nursing courses. There are approximately 1000 students residing in the hostels. There is the provision of sport ground and equipment for students and staff.
Using simple random sampling (lottery method) 100 staff nurses was enrolled in the study. Before random sampling for staff nurses, selection of wards was also done by lottery method. The study was conducted in the month of April 2015. The tools used for data collection were sociodemographic profile sheet, job satisfaction scale (JSS), and ORS scale. The permission for tools was sought before proceeding to the final data collection.
Sociodemographic profile sheet
This part includes personal information or experience of registered nurses such as age, gender, qualification, religion, monthly income, years of professions experience work pattern, simultaneous another work assignment, and opportunity to attend an in-service education program.
Job satisfaction scale
This scale was created by Spector.  It is a six-point summated rating scale contains 36 items ranging from "agree very much (6)" to "disagree very much (1)." The score on negatively worded items was reversed before summing with the positively worded items; about 19 items out of 36 were negatively worded. JSS has nine broad facets of satisfaction; pay promotion, supervision, fringe benefits, contingent rewards, operation procedures, coworkers, nature of work, and communication. The total score of the tool was 36-216. The score interpretation of the scale was devised in three categories; dissatisfaction (36-108), ambivalent (109-144), and satisfaction (145-216).
Organizational role stress scale
The scale was created by Pareek.  The scale consists of 50 items rated on five-point Likert rating ranging "never (0)" to "very frequently (4)" and consists 10 perceived stressors; self-role distance (SRD), inter-role distance, role stagnation (RS), role isolation (RI), role ambiguity (RA), role expectation conflict, role overload (RO), role erosion, resource inadequacy, and personal inadequacy. The reliability of "JSS" and "ORS scale" was 0.91 and 0.93 respectively. The tools were pretested for checking their clarity, feasibility, and practicability. It took 20-25 min to fill the tools and it was found feasible for study.
The formal written permission granted from ethical committee of Sri Guru Ram Das Institute of Medical Sciences and Research, Amritsar, Punjab and written informed consent was also collected from the subjects. After filling sociodemographics profile sheet, standardized JSS, and ORS scale was administered to fill during their free time.
Anonymity and confidentiality was maintained during and after data collection. Subjects were given full autonomy to withdraw from the study anytime without assigning any reason. The data were coded and tabulated. The final data transformed to IBM SPSS 20.0 evaluation version and analyzed by using appropriate descriptive and inferential statistics.
| Results|| |
Sociodemographic profile reveals that around 56% of staff nurses belong to age group 21-25 years followed by 36% in age group of 26-30 years.
Further, it is evident that 51% respondents were single and belonged to the joint family (74%) and have family income more than 9001 rupees (84%) per month.
In term of professional liability, it was found that 56% subject completed general nursing and midwifery as professional qualification and had <5 years of professional experience (67%) and an equal number of nurses (50%) were working at general wards and specialized/intensive areas. Further data revealed that majority of subjects (77%) did not get any kind of extra work assignment apart from their routine job responsibilities, working in day and night shift (93%) equally and got the opportunity to attend in-service education program (72%) in an academic year [Table 1].
Level of job satisfaction
Job satisfaction related findings revealed that a majority of nurses (92%) were ambivalent about their job satisfaction and an equal number (04%) were dissatisfied and satisfied regarding their job [Table 2].
Relationship between organizational role stress and job satisfaction
Correlation between job satisfaction and ORS was computed for nurses. Findings reveals a significant negative relationship (r = −0.289, P < 0.01) between job satisfaction and ORS. It also reveals a statistically significant relationship between different domains of ORS with job satisfaction. However, RS, RO, and SRD did not show a significant statistical relationship to job satisfaction [Table 3].
|Table 3: Bivariate correlation between the job satisfaction and organizational role stress (n=100)|
Click here to view
| Discussion|| |
Organizational stress has been found resulting in both mental and physical ill health and ultimately having damaging effects on professional efficiency and quality of care. The effects of job factors on the occurrence of professional diseases are well established, yet their role in the development and outbreak of work-related disease is still unclear.
Work-related disease can be prevented by early recognizing and understanding all risk factors has paramount importance. In that respect, this research aimed at analyzing organizational stress and level of job satisfaction in nurses as potential risk factors for work-related diseases, and implementing appropriate preventive measures.
As per our first result, it is being analyzed that maximum number of nurses were in the stage of ambivalence in term of level of job satisfaction while ORS was found to be negatively related to job satisfaction. In other words, employees who are unable to tackle with stress in a positive way will be more satisfied with their job as compared with those who consider stress as a barrier.
Present study findings are consistent with previous study findings conducted by Lerouge et al.,  which reported that job satisfaction was related to stressful work. It also finds indirect support in the work of Schabracq and Cooper,  concluding that occupational stress contributes to low motivation and morale, decreased performance, high turnover, more sick leave, accidents, and ultimately low job satisfaction. Another study conducted by Bhatti et al.  and Verma  also reported similar consistent findings that job stress related to low satisfaction. Similar consistent findings reported in a study conducted by Quah and Campbell,  which found that role conflict and RA were positively and significantly related to work stress and low job satisfaction. Conversely, inconsistent findings represented by a study  conducted at the central government hospital at India, which reported that around 45% nurses are highly satisfied. The justification for inconsistent findings is may be due to the type of organization, and use of the different methodology for the study.
| Conclusion|| |
The study revealed that stress is a universal phenomenon in health care organization among professionals that can manifest in various forms. Stress among nurses has become a major concern to healthcare organization which can harm to nurses health and performance both. The study concludes that early recognition of stress and timely intervention will help to improve the performance and quality of care in health care organization. This can be done by timely recognition, providing counseling services, providing better ergonomics and considering the suggestion given by nurses in decision-making at organization level with overall organizational goals and caring about the well-being of the nurse. The nursing administrator must implement the commitments so that the ideals of the organization and needs of nurses can be congruent to ensure a consistent flow of trained and satisfied manpower in the future.
The results of the study should be viewed with a small number of limitations. Caution should be made that findings of this preliminary study should not be generalizable to the larger population due to small sample size and 1-time cross-sectional survey. A bigger sample and different design may be adopted to represent the large population.
Financial support and sponsorship
Conflicts of interest
There are no conflicts of interest.
| References|| |
Chadha M, Sood K, Malhotra S. Effect of organizational stress on quality of life of primary and secondary school teachers. Delhi Psychiatry J 2012;15:342-6.
Perunicic B. Bolesti u vezi s radom [Work related diseases in Serbian]. In: Vidakovic A, editior. Medcina Rada I. Beograd: KCS; Institute za Medicinum Rada I Radiolosku Zastitu "dr Dragomir Karajovic", Udruzenje za Medicine Rada Jugoslavije; 1997. p. 929-46.
Srivastava AK. Management of Occupational Stress: Theories and Practice. New Delhi: Gyan Publication Houses; 1999.
Holmlund R, Strandvick T. Stress in business relationship. J Bus Ind Mark 2005;20:12-22.
Robbins SP, Judge TA. Organizational Behaviour. 12 th
ed. New Jersey: Pearson Education; 2007.
Landy FJ, Trumbo DA. Psychology of Work Behaviour. USA: Dorsey Press; 1976.
Cooper CL, Marshall J. Occupational sources of stress: A review of the literature relating to coronary heart disease and mental health. J Occup Psychol 1976;49:11-28.
Shimizu HE, Couto DT, Merchán-Hamann E, Branco AB. Occupational health hazards in ICU nursing staff. Nurs Res Pract 2010;2010:849169.
Saini R, Kaur S, Das K. Assessment of stress and burnout among intensive care nurses at tertiary care hospital. J Ment Health Hum Behav 2011;16:43-8.
Alexander NM, De Moraes MA, Filho C, George SA. Evaluation of a programme to reduce back pain in nursing personnel. Rev Saude Publica 2001;35:356-61.
Aluja A, Blanch A, Gracia LF. Dimensionality of the Maslach Burnout Inventory in school teachers: A study of several proposals. Eur J Psyhcol Assess 2005;21:67-76.
Angerer JM. Job burnout. J Employ Couns 2003;40:98-107.
Hansen J, Sullivan BA. Assessment of workplace stress: Occupational stress, its cons and common cause of teacher stress. Measuring Up: Assessment Issue For Teachers, Counselor, and Administrator. New York: McGraw Hill; 2003.
Spector PE. Measurement of human service staff satisfaction. Am J Community Psychol 1994;13:693-713.
Pareek U. Making Organisational Role Effective. New Delhi: Tat McGraw Hill Publishing Co. Ltd.; 1993.
Lerouge C, Nelson A, Blaton J. The Impact of role stress fit and self esteem on the job attitudes of IT professionals. Inf Manage 2006;43:928-36.
Schabracq MJ, Copper CL. The changing nature of work and stress. J Manage Psychol 2000;15:227-42.
Bhatti N, Hashmi MA, Raza SA, Shaikh FM, Shafiq K. Empirical analysis of job stress on job satisfaction among university teacher in Pakistan. Int Bus Res 2011;4:264-70.
Verma S. Stress Questionnaire for Lawyers: Implications of Burnout and Psychosocial Stressors for the Job Satisfaction Among Male and Female Lawyers, Unpublished M. Phil Thesis, Himachal Pradesh University, Shimla, (India); 2008.
Quah J, Campbell KM. Role conflict and role ambiguity as factors in work stress among managers in Singapore. Some moderator variables. Res Pract Hum Resour Manage 1994;2:21-33.
Kumar R, Saini R. Job satisfaction and organizational commitment among nurses at mental hospital. J Nurs Sci Pract 2013;3:13-8.
[Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3]