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   2015| January-June  | Volume 20 | Issue 1  
    Online since September 8, 2015

 
 
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CASE REPORTS
Compulsive masturbation in a patient with delusional disorder
Sagar Karia, Avinash De Sousa, Nilesh Shah, Sushma Sonavane
January-June 2015, 20(1):38-40
DOI:10.4103/0971-8990.164825  
Compulsive masturbation is a type of paraphilia related disorder in which a person engages in masturbatory behavior to such an extent that it causes socio-occupational dysfunction. The psychiatric co-morbidities associated with it include mood and anxiety disorders, substance use disorders, etc. Here, we report a case of a patient with the delusional disorder having compulsive masturbation.
  176,583 1,689 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Locus of control and its relationship with mental health and adjustment among adolescent females
Madhu Jain, Suyesha Singh
January-June 2015, 20(1):16-21
DOI:10.4103/0971-8990.164803  
Objective: There exists a plethora of researches which have identified the role of Locus of Control in maintaining sound mental health and adjustment. The present study examined the relationship of Locus of Control with Mental Health & overall Adjustment among adolescent females. Method: The participants consisted of 50 adolescent females. Mental Health Battery designed by Singh, Gupta (2000), Rotter's Locus of Control Scale (1966) & Adjustment Inventory for College Students by Sinha & Singh (1995) were administered. Findings: The findings of the study revealed that adolescent females who possess internal locus of control showed better mental health & overall adjustment pattern which includes home, social, emotional, educational domains and health adjustment domain than those who possess external locus of control. Conclusion: The study highlights the pervasive influence of internal & external locus of control on mental health & adjustment among adolescent females.
  10,801 589 7
INSPIRATIONS FROM HISTORY
Tracing the journey of disulfiram: From an unintended discovery to a treatment option for alcoholism
Arghya Pal, Raman Deep Pattanayak, Rajesh Sagar
January-June 2015, 20(1):41-43
DOI:10.4103/0971-8990.164826  
Disulfiram is a drug that has been used as a deterrent agent in the treatment of alcohol use disorders. This section ventures into the journey of the discovery of the molecule, starting from the accidental discovery of its potential pathophysiological effects, thereafter becoming obscure due to lack of indications (alcohol use was not considered a problem!); and finally making a comeback and standing the rigorous test of time due to the determination of a few researchers, which makes it a story worth revisiting.
  8,399 386 2
CASE REPORTS
Improvement in writer's cramp with use of behaviour therapy: A study of three cases with six month follow-up
Jaspreet Kaur, Archna Sharma, Ajeet Sidana
January-June 2015, 20(1):35-37
DOI:10.4103/0971-8990.164822  
Writer's cramp (WC) is a focal dystonia causing impairments in daily life. The chief symptom is the inability to use the hand, or difficulty in using it, for writing or other occupational purposes. Behavioral treatment approaches have been shown to improve handwriting performance. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of behaviour therapy in WC. In the current study three cases of writer's cramp were treated with eclectic therapy which included relaxation technique, retraining and pharmacotherapy (anxiolytic drugs). The handwriting performance was examined before and after treatment. In all the three cases, the response to treatment was good, and the improvement was maintained at 6 months follow-up. The patients could write comfortably and legibly without tension in hand muscles after undergoing the intense therapy. Results suggest that patients with WC benefit from the use of behavior therapy combined with pharmacotherapy (anxiolytics).
  6,917 277 -
REVIEW ARTICLES
Late onset depression: A recent update
Ananya Mahapatra, Pawan Sharma, Sudhir Kumar Khandelwal
January-June 2015, 20(1):4-11
DOI:10.4103/0971-8990.164799  
Late onset depression has recently emerged as a serious mental health issue in the geriatric population with significant public health implications. It is often challenging to diagnose and treat this entity. Various theories have been postulated to elucidate the etiology of late onset depression, but a unifying hypothesis is lacking. Although the vascular hypothesis is most researched; a complex interaction of multiple vulnerability factors is the current focus of attention. Numerous psychosocial variables have been implicated to play a significant role in predicting the onset and severity of late-life depression. Phenomenological differences have been delineated from depression occurring at a younger age, but the findings are equivocal. A better understanding of the natural trajectory of depression in the elderly is required for early diagnosis and effective treatment. This review attempts to summarize the current status of evidence regarding epidemiology, etiology, clinical features, and treatment options available for late-onset depression.
  5,247 408 1
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Misuse of social media marketing by alcohol companies
Zakirhusain A Shaikh, Rambha Pathak, MC Kapilashrami
January-June 2015, 20(1):22-27
DOI:10.4103/0971-8990.164805  
Background and Aims: Epidemiological transition in the form of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) now becoming the main cause of mortality and morbidity is very much evident even in developing countries like India. Alcohol is an important risk factor for NCD. The use of alcohol is increasing especially in young people and women. This increased use can be attributed to aggressive and innovative marketing by alcohol, in spite of and due to restrictions on its marketing. Social media, in recent times, has been misused by alcohol companies for marketing their products legally, due to legal loophole. The present study examined the reach of alcohol companies on social media and the marketing strategies used by them. Design, Settings, Participants: Facebook, Twitter and YouTube were explored for accounts and content by alcohol companies for marketing their product. Policies of social media sites pertaining to alcohol marketing were also studied. Measurements: Alcohol marketing was measured in terms of content posted by alcohol companies, use of direct or surrogate advertisement and engagement with users. Findings: Alcohol companies have been conveniently using social media to target young urban population with direct and surrogate advertisements of their products. Current social media policies and laws are ineffective in controlling it. Conclusions: Amendment of laws pertaining to alcohol marketing to include social media also in its ambit is necessary. Social media sites should revise their policies to prevent alcohol marketing and promotion especially to underaged users.
  4,702 303 2
EDITORIAL
Use of smartphone apps for mental health: Can they translate to a smart and effective mental health care?
Rajesh Sagar, Raman Deep Pattanayak
January-June 2015, 20(1):1-3
DOI:10.4103/0971-8990.164791  
  4,400 359 4
CASE REPORTS
Recurrent hypoglycemia in a patient of neurofibromatosis type 1 and type 1 diabetes mellitus: Munchausen's syndrome mimicking Insulinoma
Mubaraq Naqash, Muzafar Naik, Tariq Bhat, Irfan Yusuf, Abdul Wahid Khan, Ajaz Suhaff
January-June 2015, 20(1):32-34
DOI:10.4103/0971-8990.164820  
A 35-year-old widow having neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF 1) and type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM) was admitted for abdominal pain, vomiting and recent onset low blood sugars. During hospitalization, the patient developed recurrent episodes of hypoglycemia despite stopping insulin. A possibility of insulinoma was made due to the presence of abdominal pain, vomiting, hypoglycemia, and association of insulinoma with NF 1. However, surprisingly c-peptide was very low and plasma insulin levels were high. A detailed psychiatric evaluation of the patient revealed Munchausen's syndrome as a cause of recurrent hypoglycemia. Unrecognized psychiatric illnesses in type 1 DM may lead to overzealous investigation. In conclusion, the clinical presentations of persons with factitious disorder are varied and impact every area of medicine, factitious causes should always be considered in unclarified recurrent hypoglycemia, especially in cases presented with dramatic but inconsistent medical history, and an unusual personal behavior.
  2,804 141 -
REVIEW ARTICLES
Current concerns in psychiatric diagnostic process and the paradigm shift: Research domain criteria
Nilamadhab Kar
January-June 2015, 20(1):12-15
DOI:10.4103/0971-8990.164801  
There are many issues around the current approaches in diagnosing psychiatric illnesses. Most of the diagnoses are symptom-clusters and not etiology based. Although they are reliable constructs, their validity has always been debated. It is a common experience that the presentations of patients having even the same diagnosis vary considerably. Recently following the launch of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-5, concerns have been raised about the possibility of over diagnosis and over-treatment of patients who are essentially well. To address these concerns, there is an initiative to move away from traditional diagnoses and study the clinical phenomena based on behavioral dimensions and neurobiological measures, which will support new ways of classifying mental disorders. Research domain criteria (RDoC) are a framework for collecting the information needed for a new nosology. Conceived as a matrix, RDoC is using different units of analysis to study various domains of functions. Without taking into account current diagnoses, it is trying to find out the abnormalities in different parameters from genes to physiology, circuits etc., in a given clinical presentation. This process will improve the understanding of clinical phenomena in a dimensional model and may ultimately help suggest more appropriate interventions leading to better outcomes for psychiatric disorders.
  2,810 133 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Assessment of the use and misuse of Cannabis sativa amongst some residents of Jos metropolis, Nigeria
NS Jimam, DA Dangiwa, LN Jimam, E Idoga
January-June 2015, 20(1):28-31
DOI:10.4103/0971-8990.164815  
Background: Cannabis can be used for its medicinal properties when used appropriately. However, the misuse of the product can cause some unwanted effects such as psychological dependence, and therefore addiction. Objective: The objective of the study was to determine the extent of misuse of Cannabis sativa in Jos and environs. Materials and Methods: The use and misuse of C. sativa in Jos metropolis was studied using a structured self-administered questionnaire which was administered to 400 respondents in the metropolis. Result: The result showed that 59.9% of the participants were male while 40.1% were female with 88.2% of the population being youth between the ages of 20-35 years. The result also shows that at least 31.3% of the studied population had used C. sativa, for different reasons including among others: to boost confidence (11.4%), 5.1% take it to increase alertness, 5.1% take it to decrease fatigue, 0.3% take it to decrease stress, 5.4% take it to get high while 4% take it for other reasons. Conclusion: The result of the study showed an observed high incidence of C. sativa intake among the study population who were mostly youths for different purposes, including to: Boost confidence, feel high, increase alertness, and decrease fatigue. Similarly, a high percentage of the respondents said the drug is used for hair treatment.
  2,641 137 -